Statistical significance does not necessarily mean clinical significance. A P value less than 0.05 does not guarantee the clinical effectiveness of a treatment. To assess the clinical valuable of a treatment, the effect size must be calculated. The number needed to treat (NNT) is an example of an effect size measure that can be very helpful in determining the clinical significance of a treatment. Therefore, it is recommended for all researchers and physicians to look beyond the P value and calculate the NNT for assessing the clinical significance of therapeutic measures and agents.
Keywords: Number Needed to Treat, P-value, effect size, clinical trial