One of the most common and most critical mortality causes in modern society is gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most potent risk factors of gastric cancer. This bacterium can suppress the immune system by various pathogenic factors and mechanisms, lead to chronic inflammatory responses, and play a critical role in the induction of cancer. The first part of this article begins with a description of H. pylori carcinogenicity and in the next part, the roles of innate immunity pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and inflammatory regulatory mechanisms in H. pylori infection are discussed. According to our current knowledge, screening and on-time diagnosis of the disease, timely treatment, and immediate eradication of H. pylori are the most critical ways to barricade gastric cancer progression. In the end, it is suggested that, considering the expensive costs of gastric cancer treatment, H. pylori diagnostic screening tests be done at least annually in middle-aged and at-risk people.
Keywords: Cytokine, Gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, Inflammation, Pattern Recognition Receptors