In medicine, the application of nanotechnology is related to the use of nanoscale materials to improve and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Due to the unique physicochemical and optical characteristics of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), such as high biocompatibility, surface properties, and relative stability, they have been widely investigated for medical purposes, particularly as a theranostic agent in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review concentrates on current progress in the applications of TiO2 nanostructures in cancer diagnosis and treatment domains. Studies have shown that TiO2 NPs can be promising in various medical imaging techniques. In the field of cancer treatment, researchers have evaluated the ability of TiO2 NPs in up-to-date therapeutic approaches, including drug delivery, sonodynamic, photodynamic, photothermal, and ionizing radiation therapies. In the current review, we focus on the ability of TiO2 NPS as a radiation sensitizer to improve the efficiency of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, according to the studies that have been conducted on controlling and optimizing the factors involved in the TiO2 NP radiosensitization, the mechanism of TiO2 NPs in producing the radiosensitivity effect has been discussed.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Drug delivery system, Sonodynamic therapy, Photothermal therapy, Photodynamic therapy