Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels play a crucial role in maintaining healthy blood vessels and regulating consistent blood flow. EC dysfunction (ECD) is the improper functioning of ECs as a result of any modification or damage. Numerous health issues such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lightheadedness, exhaustion, diabetes, and the like could result from this. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors may cause ECD. Many virus-induced hemorrhagic fevers, including dengue fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever, exhibit ECD. ECs maintain barrier functions by regulating immune cell interactions, homeostasis, and capillary permeability, and in viral infections, viral interaction alters these factors. These pathogens destroy ECs, leading to a loss of integrity in the blood vessels and increased permeability. Hemorrhagic fever can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, weakness, exhaustion, bruises, bleeding, shock, and occasionally even the emergence of additional issues such as organ failure. Hemorrhagic fevers can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and correctly. Considering that ECD can be a silent condition, consultation with physicians about individuals’ risk factors and regular screenings to detect and prevent this condition is highly important. There is no specific antiviral treatment for most hemorrhagic fevers, but research is ongoing to develop effective treatments. This review will discuss the ECD due to viral interactions to cause hemorrhagic fevers, available treatments, and challenges associated with such viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs).
Keywords: Endothelial cell, Dysfunction, Hemorrhagic fevers, Pathogenesis